|Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country largely situated in the north of South America, with land and territories in North America. Colombia is bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea, the northwest by Panama, the south by both Ecuador and Peru, the east by Venezuela, the southeast by Brazil, and the west by the Pacific. It comprises thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogotá.|
- The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
- Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different.
- Since the beginning of the periods of conquest and colonization, there were several rebel movements against Spanish rule, but most were either crushed or remained too weak to change the overall situation.
- Shortly after the Napoleonic Wars ended, Ferdinand VII , recently restored to the throne in Spain, unexpectedly decided to send military forces to retake most of northern South America.
- Internal divisions remained between the bipartisan political forces, occasionally igniting very bloody civil wars, the most significant being the Thousand Days' War (1899–1902).